Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2005 - History

Major events, sports highlights and Nobel Prizes of 2005 - History

Major Event/ Sports /Nobel Prizes/Pulitzer Prizes/Academy/ Popular Movies/ Popular Books /Popular Television Shows/ Popular Music/ Major Events of 2005

    • First Hispanic Mayor Elected in Los Angeles
    • Hurricane Katrina Hits Gulf Coast, Floods New Orleans
    • French Veto English Membership
    • Terrorist Bomb London
    • Bombing at Mosque in Pakistan
    • Large Scale Aid Pledged for Africa
    • Peace Treaty Signed in Darfur
    • Evo Morales Becomes Bolivian President
    • Israel Removes Settlers from Gaza

Sports

  • MLB: 2005 World Series
    Chicago White Sox win 4-0 against the Houston Astros
    - Oct 22...Houston 3 at Chicago 5
    - Oct 23...Houston 6 at Chicago 7
    - Oct 25...Chicago 7 at Houston 5 (14th inn)
    - Oct 26...Chicago 1 at Houston 0
  • NFL: Super Bowl XXXIX
    New England Patriots win 24-21 against the Philadelphia Eagles
    - Super Bowl Box Score:
    New England...0 7 7 10-24
    Philadelphia......0 7 7 7-21
  • Professional Golf
    Men's Majors winners
    - The Masters: Tiger Woods... 74-66-65-71--276
    - US Open: Michael Campbell... 71-69-71-69--280
    - British Open: Tiger Woods... 66-67-71-70--274
    - PGA Championship: Phil Mickelson... 67-65-72-72--276
    Women's Majors winners
    - Kraft Nabisco Championship:
    Annika Sörenstam... 70-69-66-68--273
    - US Women's Open: Birdie Kim... 74-72-69-72--287
    - McDonald's LPGA Championship:
    Annika Sörenstam... 68-67-69-73--277
    - Weetabix Women's British Open:
    Jeong Jang... 68-66-69-69--272

Popular Songs

1 Mariah Carey We Belong Together
2 Gwen Stefani Hollaback Girl
3 Mario Let Me Love You
4 Kelly Clarkson Since U Been Gone
5 Ciara feat. Missy Elliott 1, 2 Step
6 Kanye West feat. Jamie Foxx Gold Digger
7 Green Day Boulevard Of Broken Dreams
8 50 Cent feat. Olivia Candy Shop
9 Pussycat Dolls feat. Busta Rhymes Don't Cha
10 Kelly Clarkson Behind These Hazel Eyes

Popular Movies

1. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Warner Bros. $895,911,078
2. Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith 20th Century Fox / Lucasfilm $848,754,768
3. The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe Walt Disney Pictures $745,013,115
4. War of the Worlds Paramount / DreamWorks $591,745,540
5. King Kong Universal $550,517,357
6. Madagascar DreamWorks $532,680,671
7. Mr. & Mrs. Smith 20th Century Fox $478,207,520
8. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory Warner Bros $474,968,763
9. Batman Begins Warner Bros / Legendary $374,218,673
10. Hitch Columbia $368,100,420

  • Best Picture: Crash
  • Best Director: Ang Lee for Brokeback Mountain
  • Best actor in a leading role: Philip Seymour Hoffman for Capote
  • Best actress in a leading role: Reese Witherspoon for Walk the Line
  • Best actor in a supporting role: George Clooney for Syriana
  • Best actress in a supporting role: Rachel Weisz for The Constant Gardener
  • Academy Honorary Award: Robert Altman

Grammy Awards

  • Record of the Year: "Here We Go Again" - Ray Charles & Norah Jones
  • Song of the Year: "Daughters" - John Mayer
  • Album of the Year: "Genius Loves Company" - Ray Charles & various artists
  • Best New Artist: Maroon 5

Nobel Prizes

.

  • Peace: The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and Mohamed ElBaradei (Egypt) "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"
  • Physiology or Medicine: Barry J. Marshall & Robin Warren "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
  • Economic Sciences: Robert J. Aumann (Israel/USA) & Thomas Schelling (USA) "for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"
  • Chemistry: Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock, & Yves Chauvin "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
  • Physics: John L. Hall & Theodor W. Hänsch "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
  • Literature: Harold Pinter (UK - English)

Pulitzer Prizes

  • Public Service: Los Angeles Times
  • National Reporting: Walt Bogdanich, New York Times
  • International Reporting: Kim Murphy, Los Angeles Times; Dele Olojede, Newsday (Long Island, NY)
  • Editorial Writing: Tom Philip, Sacramento Bee
  • Editorial Cartooning: Nick Anderson, Courier-Journal (Louisville, KY)
  • Photography: Deanne Fitzmaurice, San Francisco Chronicle
  • Commentary: Connie Schultz, Cleveland Plain Dealer
  • Criticism: Joe Morgenstern, Wall Street Journal
  • Feature Writing: Julia Keller, Chicago Tribune
  • Beat Reporting: Amy Dockser Marcus, Wall Street Journal
  • Explanatory Reporting: Gareth Cook, Boston Globe
  • Investigative Reporting: Nigel Jaquiss, Willamette Week (Portland, OR)
  • Breaking News: Staff, Associated Press
  • Fiction: Marilynne Robinson, Gilead
  • Drama: John Patrick Shanley, Doubt
  • Biography/Autobiography: Mark Stevens & Annalyn Swan, De Kooning: An American Master
  • History: David Hackett Fisher, Washington's Crossing
  • Poetry: Ted Kooser, Delights and Shadows
  • General Nonfiction: Steve Coll, Ghost Wars
  • Music: Steven Stucky, Second Concerto for Orchestra

Sporting Highlights for 2005

Here are the sporting highlights of the world of sport in 2005. This was a year of total domination by some of the most reputed individuals in sport. From tennis where Roger Federer continued his domination over the Wimbledon championships to Tiger Woods who eclipsed every feat there ever was in golf. The Tour de France was won by Lance Armstrong, again, for the seventh time, though in 2012 all his wins were removed from the record books due to doping violations.

It was also the year where "That fateful night in Istanbul" happened for Liverpool fans. It was the Champions league final and AC Milan was up 3-0 in the first half. That night saw one of the most amazing comebacks in football history where Liverpool won the league (for the fifth time) after defeating Milan 3-2 on penalties after drawing 3-3 in full time.

Also this year Diego Corrales defeated José Luis Castillo by 10th round knockout, for the WBO-WBC lightweight title unification. Both men were exchanging a brutal amount of punishment throughout the fight, before a dramatic tenth round in which Corrales scored a TKO after getting knocked down twice. The fight was highly regarded as one of the greatest of all-time and won Ring Magazine fight of the year.

It was the year where the domination of Rafael Nadal in the French open started when he won his first title in this year and went on to win 9 titles in 10 years after that. Also Roger Federer sealed his domination over the Wimbledon championships wining his 3rd consecutive title.

In cricket in 2005 ICC World XI beat the ACC Asian XI by 112 runs to win the first of two scheduled one-day internationals for the World Cricket Tsunami Appeal where the second one was not played. It was the first time an ODI has been played that has not been between two cricketing nations.

In golf, Tiger Woods reigned supreme once again as he won his 4th golf masters and his 9th major title. Woods efforts helped his bank account - he was again the World's Sporting Top Earner for 2005, with earnings of US$87 million.

2005 was a sad year in soccer/football history as one of the most reputed footballer of all time and Manchester United legend George Best lost his life at an age of 59 after suffering multiple organ failures. There is a saying in soccer folklore that goes &ldquoMaradona good, Pele better, George Best&rdquo and that says a lot about the kind of skills he had the and achievements he had won. This was also the year we lost legendary boxer Max Schmeling who holds a rank in the top 50 greatest boxers of all time released by the Ring Magazine. Max Schmeling fought the &ldquoBattle of the Century&rdquo with Joe Louis during the Nazi era. Other notable deaths included that of Gunder Gundersen (skiing), Toni Fritsch (football and soccer), Syed Mushtaq Ali (cricket), Bob Kennedy (baseball) and many others.

The 2005 Laureus World Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year Awards went to tennis player Roger Federer and middle distance runner Kelly Holmes.

Below is a timeline of some significant results in the world of sport for the year 2005.

Date Results
Jan Tennis Australia Open won by Marat Safin and Serena Williams
Feb Super Bowl held in Jacksonville won by New England
April Golf Masters won by Tiger Woods (4th win)
May Tennis French Open won by Rafael Nadal (Spain) and Justine Henin (Belgium)
June Golf US Open won by Michael Campbell
July the Cycling Tour de France was won by Lance Armstrong (though he was later stripped of this win)
July Tennis Wimbledon won by Roger Federer (Switz) and Venus Williams (USA)
July Golf British Open won by Tiger Woods
Aug Golf US PGA won by Phil Mickelson
Sep Tennis US Open won by Roger Federer (Swiz) and Kim Clijsters
Oct The Baseball World Series won by Chicago White Sox

Please note that the dates for past events are not always known, and are sometimes just placed in the month that the current event is held. If no exact date is listed, then it is just an estimated month that it was held.

If you have a correction or know of events that should be included here, please let me know.


Technology 2005

  • Steve Fossett breaks world record by completing the first non-stop, non-refueled, solo flight around the world in the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer.
  • The Superjumbo jet aircraft Airbus A380 makes its first flight from Toulouse.
  • Microsoft releases the Xbox 360 gaming console in North America.
  • The Spanish flu virus is reconstructed and shown to be closely related to the Avian flu virus.
  • Research by the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) suggests that women who take Hormone Replacement Therapy are more at risk from breast cancer, heart disease and stroke.

Condoleezza Rice Confirmed

Public Domain/U.S. Department of State

On January 26, 2005, the Senate voted 85––13 to confirm Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State, succeeding Colin Powell as head of the State Department. Rice was the first African American and second woman to hold the position of Secretary of State.


Timeline: 2005

Jan 9 Dr. Mahmoud Abbas, leader of the Palestine Liberation Organization, wins a landslide election to succeed Yasser Arafat as Palestinian Authority President.

Jan 11 In the US the demand for homes and the price of homes are surging. The housing market is swollen with opportunists buying homes and selling them for a quick profit. David Lereah, chief economist for the National Association of Realtors, announces that "home sales will stay well above what was considered to be a healthy level in the late 1990s. The population has grown, household formation is strong and demographics tell us this trend will continue."

Jan 12 The White House announces that the search for weapons of mass destruction in Iraq is officially over.

Jan13 Armed militants enter Israel from Gaza, kiling six and wounding five others. Hamas and Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades claim joint responsibility for the attack.

Jan 21 Hundreds of Palestinian Authority police deploy across the Gaza Strip. Israel hopes that Dr. Abbas will put an end to the kind of violence that he has renounced and that happened on January 13.

Jan 25 In India, a stampede at Mandher Devi Temple kills at least 215, mostly women and small children.

Jan 26 Colin Powell has been asked by President Bush to step down from his position as Secretary of State. Powell's resignation becomes effective. Vice President Cheney and Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld are not unhappy about his departure. Condoleezza Rice becomes Secretary of State.

Jan 30 About 58 percent of Iraqis eligible to vote choose representatives to a 275-seat National Assembly, whose job it will be to create the country's constitution.

Jan 31 In Russia, the public no longer elects regional governors. Central authority in Moscow has grown in power. President Putin nominates the first Russian regional governor under a new law.

Feb 8 In Denmark a center-right coalition government wins a second term as voters support a plan to keep immigration in check and taxes from rising.

Feb10 Saudi Arabia holds its first municipal elections. Only males are allowed to vote.

Feb 14 A suicide bomber assassinates Lebanon's former Prime Minister Hariari. Syria denies any involvement.

Feb 16 The Kyoto Protocol goes into effect, without the support of the United States and Australia.

Feb 25 Terrorists kill five and wound fifty in Tel Aviv. Islamic Jihad claims responsibility for the attack.

Feb 28 Abbas says that the Palestinian Authority is making a "100 percent effort" to prevent attacks such as occurred on the 25th.

Mar 5 In Iraq, US soldiers shoot at a car carrying an Italian journalist, Giuliana Sgrena, wounding her and killing one of the Italian security agents who is freeing her from captivity.

Mar 8 The US military announces that US soldiers are operating road check points using strict rules of engagement but that these rules are not readily available to the public.

Mar 24 In Krgyzstan people are inspired by peaceful revolutions in Georgia and Ukraine, and they are upset over poverty and accusations of fraud in recent parliamentary elections. They overthrow President Askar Alayev, who has ruled Kyrgyzstan since the breakup of the Soviet Union and Kyrgyzstan's independence in 1990. Under President Alayev, critics were harassed and imprisoned and opposition newspapers closed. A spirit of liberty sweeps Kyrgyzstan. It is called the Tulip Revolution.

Apr 1 Popular Science publishes an article that describes the Army Corps of Engineers as considering a new levee system for New Orleans capable of holding back a surge from a Category 5 hurricane but that "it may be decades before the new barriers are completed.

Apr 2 Pope John Paul II dies.

Apr 9 Tens of thousands of demonstrators, many of them supporters of Shia cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, march through Baghdad denouncing US occupation of Iraq.

Apr 26 The BBC reports that in Tashkent, Uzbekistan, parks replace roads to the city center, blocking access to government buildings.

Apr 26 Syria withdraws the last of its military garrison from Lebanon, ending 29 years of military occupation.

May 4 In Iraq, at least 60 people are killed and dozens wounded in a suicide bombing at a Kurdish police recruitment center in Irbil, northern Iraq.

May 13 In the city of Andijin, in Uzbekistan, the military shoots at protesters. More than 500 die.

May 14 In Korazuv, a town In Uzbekistan that borders Kyrgyzstan, people rebel and drive out police and town officials.

May 18 Uzbek troops take over the town of Korazuv.

May 25 In Cairo, police let young thugs through their lines to attack demonstrators protesting undemocratic elections. The thugs attack only women, groping, beating, ripping off clothing and driving the women half-naked down streets. An middle-class housewife, not ordinarily interested in politics, Gahda Shahbender, is outraged and begins what will become the "Black Wednesday" movement. Its purpose is to observe government behavior regarding elections. It will involve use of the internet.

Jun 10 Fourteen countries, including Brazil, Colombia, Ghana, Togo, Pakistan and Senegal, sign an agreement to eliminate child labor in mining and quarrying.

Jun 12 In Romania, police move against an Orthodox priest whom they hold responsible for the death of a 23-year-old nun who is said to have had psychic problems that the priest interpreted as possession by the devil. The nun died, it is alleged, as a result of the priest's exorcism ritual.

Jun 17 The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development begins to distribute evacuation maps to the residents of New Orleans.

Jun 30 Spain joins Belgium and the Netherlands in permitting same-sex marriage.

Jul 7 In London during the morning commute, three suicide bombers attack the subway and one suicide bomber strikes on a double-decker bus. Thirty-eight people are reported killed and hundreds injured. The bombers were four young men and British citizens, three of Pakistani descent and one of Jamaican descent. Two of them were married and fathers. The four were Muslim, one leaving behind a note saying that support for atrocities "against my people the world over" have made the public "directly responsible" and therefore fair targets.

Jul 10 In Kyrgyzstan, Kurmanbek Bakiyev wins a landslide victory and is to become president. He is a leader of the "tulip revolution" which ousted the former president back in March.

Jul 12 Feuding over water and pasture in a semi-arid region of eastern Africa results in an armed raid across the Ethiopian border against the village of Turbi in Kenya. As many as 100 are killed, mainly women and children.

Jul 22 In London, police follow a young electrician from Brazil, Jean Charles de Menezes, to the subway and shoot him dead. It was mistaken identity.

Jul 28 The Provisional Irish Republican Army announces an end to the armed campaign that it has pursued since 1969.

Aug 15 Israel sets the deadline for its citizens to leave the Gaza Strip.

Aug 23 Israel's eviction of 8,500 or so settlers from Gaza and the West Bank ends.

Aug 26 People in Gaza are joyous over the withdrawal of Israelis. Some are looking forward to peace with Israel. A leader of the military wing of Hamas, Mohammed Deif, is not. He releases a video describing the Israelis as leaving Gaza humiliated, and he credits his suicide bombers with having contributed to the withdrawal. Israel's policy makers have no regrets. In withdrawing from Gaza they are not letting the opinions of their enemies, or their potential enemies, deter them from acting in their own interest.

Aug 26 The US Coast Guard begins pre-positioning resources and it activates more than 400 reservists in preparation for Hurricane Katrina.

Aug 27 Regarding Hurricane Katrina, President Bush declares a national emergency.

Aug 28 The National Weather Service's New Orleans/Baton Rouge office issues a bulletin predicting that Hurricane Katrina will make the area "uninhabitable for weeks." Voluntary and mandatory evacuations are ordered.

Aug 29 Hurricane Katrina strikes the Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama coasts.

Aug 30 Eighty percent of New Orleans is flooded. Many cars remain in the city, now unusable. People are trapped in their homes. Along the coast, the Coast Guard is rescuing people by the hundreds. Of the 60,000 or so people stranded in New Orleans the Coast Guard begins its rescue of over 33,500. The Superdome shelters 26,000 people and provides them with food and water. The death toll in various states as a result of Katrina is to be 1,836, for Louisiana, 1,577.

Sep 4 The Israeli newspaper Haaretz reports that, in the West Bank town of Taybeh, relatives of a 23-year-old Muslim woman murder her because they suspect she was romantically involved with a Christian man. Her body is exhumed for an autopsy, and young Muslim men go to Taybeh, where Catholic and Greek Orthodox Christians live, to avenge what they consider dishonor to the woman. They throw Molotov cocktails, set homes on fire, vandalize parked cars, beat residents who come into the street and set a gas station on fire. Palestinian Authority policemen arrive and save the village's beer factory. The Palestinian governor of the area arrives, and he and Christian clerics try to sooth tempers.

Sep 7 Election day in Egypt. The Black Wednesday has recruited many poll watchers, and the movement records numerous election violations. President Hosni Mubarak wins 88 percent of the vote. There have been restrictions on who could run, and many who are cynical have not bothered to vote.

Chidiac with Gebran Tueni in 2004

Sep 19 North Korea agrees to stop building nuclear weapons in exchange for aid.

Sep 25 In Lebanon a car bomb injures television news anchor May Chidiac, said to be a critic of Syria. The blast blew off her leg below the knee and set her hair and clothes on fire. She will lose her left arm.

Sep 27 A US military panel has found Lynndie England guilty of abusing prisoners at Abu Ghraib. She is to serve three years at a military prison at Miramar, near San Diego, and given a dishonorable discharge.

Oct 1 In Bali, a Saturday night bomb blasts kill 26 and injures more than 100, near where a bombing killed 202 in October 2002.

Oct 2 US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice says "our political-military strategy has to be to clear, hold, and build: to clear areas from insurgent control, to hold them securely, and to build durable, national Iraqi institutions."

Oct 8 An earthquake in Kashmir kills about 80,000 people.

Oct 19 In Iraq the trial of Saddam Hussein begins.

Oct 19 US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, testifying to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, touts a strategy for Iraq that she describes as "clear, hold and build" &ndash a strategy that will "assure victory." Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld is offended. He wants to continue a "light footprint" strategy. He thinks it is for the Iraqi government to clear, hold and build, that coalition forces should merely back up the Iraqis. Rumsfeld is not looking for a military victory. He wants US forces out of Iraq as quickly as possible.

Oct 25 Iraq's constitution is voted upon. An electoral commission reports that 79 percent of those voting support the constitution, meeting the two-thirds requirement. But in Sunni-dominated provinces less than two-thirds vote for the constitution.

Oct 26 Iran's president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, attends a "World Without Zionism" conference. He calls for Israel to be "wiped off the map" and condemns the "peace process."

Oct 27 The European Union and Russia join in condemning President Ahmadinejad's comments.

Nov 2 Iraq's Defense Ministry begins recruiting former junior officers from Saddam Hussein's army, hoping to bolster army's forces and to siphon fighters away from the insurgency.

Nov 8 Italy's state television network broadcasts a documentary film "Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre," describing US forces in 2004 as having used white phosphorus and napalm and indiscriminately killing civilians.

Nov 9 In Amman Jordan three hotels are bombed, killing 60 and wounding 115. Two of the bombers were an Iraqi couple who saw a wedding party in progress before the bomb blasts. The wife's bomb failed to explode.

Nov 15 Iraq's prime minister, Ibrahim al-Jaafari, announces an inquiry into the torture of Sunni prisoners by Shia police officers.

Nov 18 Abu Musab al-Zarqawi has announced that the bombings in Amman were not means to hit a Muslim wedding. At least 100,000 people march in Amman denouncing Zarqawi, who is from Jordan. His family places half-page advertisements in three newspapers denouncing him and his actions.

Nov 22 Angela Merkel, 51, becomes Germany's first female chancellor, and its youngest. She has a doctorate in physics, her thesis having been on quantum chemistry. She is fluent in Russian and English. She is leader of the conservative Christian Democratic Union.

Nov 24 USA Today writes of "sizzling" housing sales encouraged by real estate agents making big money without consideration of a growing bubble. Inflating the bubble, speculators are buying houses, adding to the demand, with the idea of selling them fast for the sake of profit. States and the federal government are ignoring any need to curb unhealthy real estate or speculation practices.

Nov 25 In Lebanon, May Chidiac appears on television. Smiling, she promises that she will return to her job.

Nov 30 Speaking at the US Naval Academy, President Bush describes his "plan for victory." He speaks of US troops and commanders in Iraq seeing "the gains that the Iraqis are making." He adds that setting an artificial deadline to withdraw would send "a message across the world that America is weak and an unreliable ally.

Dec 6 Edward Leamer, director of the quarterly UCLA Anderson Forecast, reports that the US housing market will see a sustained decline next year and that the "cooling" is likely to spread over several years.

Dec 12 A leading Lebanese journalist, Gebran Tueni, is assassinated. At a Hezbollah rally in March one of the signs read "We are going to sweep Gebran Tueni from Lebanon." Other signs supported Syria. A statement of responsibility for the assassination speaks of "shutting up" a traitor and warns that the same fate awaits other opponents of "Arabism" in Lebanon.

Dec 12 President Bush speaks of "the progress of freedom and democracy in Iraq."

Dec 15 Iraq holds parliamentary elections. As many as 11 million Iraqis turn out to select their first permanent Parliament since the overthrow of Saddam Hussein. More than 7,000 Parliamentary candidates from 300 parties are seeking to fill the 275 seats in Parliament.

Dec 18 Susanne Kristina Osthoff, a German archaeologist kidnapped by terrorists in Iraq on November 25, is released apparently in exchange for Mohammed Ali Hammadi. Hammadi, from Lebanon, was in prison in Germany for participation in the murder of US Seaman Robert Stethem during an airline hijacking in 1985.

Dec 31 This year (2005) according to Matt Ridley, the average person on earth earned nearly three times as much money (corrected for inflation) and ate one-third more calories of food than did the average person in 1955. (Matt Ridley, The Rational Optimist, p. 14)


The ancient Olympic Games

Just how far back in history organized athletic contests were held remains a matter of debate, but it is reasonably certain that they occurred in Greece almost 3,000 years ago. However ancient in origin, by the end of the 6th century bce at least four Greek sporting festivals, sometimes called “classical games,” had achieved major importance: the Olympic Games, held at Olympia the Pythian Games at Delphi the Nemean Games at Nemea and the Isthmian Games, held near Corinth. Later, similar festivals were held in nearly 150 cities as far afield as Rome, Naples, Odessus, Antioch, and Alexandria.

Of all the games held throughout Greece, the Olympic Games were the most famous. Held every four years between August 6 and September 19, they occupied such an important place in Greek history that in late antiquity historians measured time by the interval between them—an Olympiad. The Olympic Games, like almost all Greek games, were an intrinsic part of a religious festival. They were held in honour of Zeus at Olympia by the city-state of Elis in the northwestern Peloponnese. The first Olympic champion listed in the records was Coroebus of Elis, a cook, who won the sprint race in 776 bce . Notions that the Olympics began much earlier than 776 bce are founded on myth, not historical evidence. According to one legend, for example, the Games were founded by Heracles, son of Zeus and Alcmene.


All Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded 111 times to 222 Nobel Laureates between 1901 and 2020. Click on the links to get more information.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2021

The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has not been awarded yet. It will be announced on Monday 4 October, 11:30 CEST at the earliest.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2020

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019

William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018

James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo “for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017

Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young “for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016

Yoshinori Ohsumi “for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015

William C. Campbell and Satoshi Ōmura “for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites”

Tu Youyou “for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014

John O’Keefe, May-Britt Moser and Edvard I. Moser “for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013

James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof “for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012

Sir John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka “for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011

Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann “for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity”

Ralph M. Steinman “for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010

Robert G. Edwards “for the development of in vitro fertilization”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak “for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Harald zur Hausen“for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer”

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier “for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007

Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies “for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006

Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello “for their discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005

Barry J. Marshall and J. Robin Warren “for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004

Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck “for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003

Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield “for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002

Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston “for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001

Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse “for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000

Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel “for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999

Günter Blobel “for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998

Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad “for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997

Stanley B. Prusiner “for his discovery of Prions – a new biological principle of infection”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996

Peter C. Doherty and Rolf M. Zinkernagel “for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995

Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus “for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994

Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell “for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992

Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs “for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991

Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann “for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990

Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas “for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989

J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus “for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988

Sir James W. Black, Gertrude B. Elion and George H. Hitchings “for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987

Susumu Tonegawa “for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985

Michael S. Brown and Joseph L. Goldstein “for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984

Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein “for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983

Barbara McClintock “for her discovery of mobile genetic elements”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982

Sune K. Bergström, Bengt I. Samuelsson and John R. Vane “for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981

Roger W. Sperry “for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres”

David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel “for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980

Baruj Benacerraf, Jean Dausset and George D. Snell “for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979

Allan M. Cormack and Godfrey N. Hounsfield“for the development of computer assisted tomography”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978

Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith “for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977

Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally “for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain”

Rosalyn Yalow“for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976

Baruch S. Blumberg and D. Carleton Gajdusek“for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975

David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin“for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974

Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade “for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973

Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen “for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972

Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter “for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971

Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. “for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970

Sir Bernard Katz, Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod “for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969

Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria “for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968

Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg “for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967

Ragnar Granit, Haldan Keffer Hartline and George Wald “for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966

Peyton Rous “for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses”

Charles Brenton Huggins “for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965

François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod “for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964

Konrad Bloch and Feodor Lynen “for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963

Sir John Carew Eccles, Alan Lloyd Hodgkin and Andrew Fielding Huxley “for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962

Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins “for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961

Georg von Békésy “for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959

Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg “for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958

George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum “for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events”

Joshua Lederberg “for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957

Daniel Bovet “for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956

André Frédéric Cournand, Werner Forssmann and Dickinson W. Richards “for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955

Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell “for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954

John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller and Frederick Chapman Robbins “for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953

Hans Adolf Krebs “for his discovery of the citric acid cycle”

Fritz Albert Lipmann “for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952

Selman Abraham Waksman “for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951

Max Theiler “for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950

Edward Calvin Kendall, Tadeus Reichstein and Philip Showalter Hench “for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949

Walter Rudolf Hess “for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs”

Antonio Caetano de Abreu Freire Egas Moniz “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948

Paul Hermann Müller “for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947

Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz “for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen”

Bernardo Alberto Houssay “for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946

Hermann Joseph Muller “for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945

Sir Alexander Fleming, Ernst Boris Chain and Sir Howard Walter Florey “for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944

Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser “for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943

Edward Adelbert Doisy “for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939

Gerhard Domagk “for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938

Corneille Jean François Heymans “for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937

Albert von Szent-Györgyi Nagyrápolt “for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936

Sir Henry Hallett Dale and Otto Loewi “for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935

Hans Spemann “for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934

George Hoyt Whipple, George Richards Minot and William Parry Murphy “for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933

Thomas Hunt Morgan “for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington and Edgar Douglas Adrian “for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931

Otto Heinrich Warburg “for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930

Karl Landsteiner “for his discovery of human blood groups”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929

Christiaan Eijkman “for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin”

Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins “for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1928

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927

Julius Wagner-Jauregg “for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926

Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger “for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1925

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924

Willem Einthoven “for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922

Archibald Vivian Hill “for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle”

Otto Fritz Meyerhof “for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1921

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920

Schack August Steenberg Krogh “for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919

Jules Bordet “for his discoveries relating to immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1917

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914

Robert Bárány “for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913

Charles Robert Richet “in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912

Alexis Carrel “in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911

Allvar Gullstrand “for his work on the dioptrics of the eye”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910

Albrecht Kossel “in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909

Emil Theodor Kocher “for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich “in recognition of their work on immunity”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran “in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906

Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramón y Cajal “in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905

Robert Koch “for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov “in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903

Niels Ryberg Finsen “in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902

Ronald Ross “for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it”

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901

Emil Adolf von Behring “for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths”

To cite this section
MLA style: All Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Prize Outreach AB 2021. Thu. 17 Jun 2021. <https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/lists/all-nobel-laureates-in-physiology-or-medicine>

About the Nobel Prize organisation

The Nobel Foundation

Tasked with a mission to manage Alfred Nobel's fortune and has ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions of Nobel's will.

The prize-awarding institutions

For more than a century, these academic institutions have worked independently to select Nobel Laureates in each prize category.

Nobel Prize outreach activities

Several outreach organisations and activities have been developed to inspire generations and disseminate knowledge about the Nobel Prize.


2005 Summit

Past and present honorees of the Academy of Achievement convened in New York City for the 2005 International Achievement Summit. From June 1 through June 4, a host of internationally renowned statesmen, scientists, artists and humanitarians shared their wisdom and experience with 260 outstanding graduate students from 50 countries, and inducted more than 25 new members into the Academy.

The 42nd President of the United States, William J. Clinton, addresses his fellow Academy members and student delegates at the Metropolitan Museum of Art to begin the 2005 International Achievement Summit in New York.

World leaders in attendance included: the 42nd President of the United States, William J. Clinton Her Majesty Queen Rania of Jordan President Festus Mogae of Botswana President Vaira Vike-Freiberga of Latvia President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal and former Secretary of State Colin L. Powell. Among the attendees were four recipients of the Nobel Prize for Peace: Dr. Shirin Ebadi, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, the Honorable Lech Walesa, and Elie Wiesel.

A member of the Awards Council, veteran newsman Mike Wallace, with 2005 Summit Host Catherine B. Reynolds.

Distinguished public servants among the Academy members included Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, Attorney General Alberto Gonzales, Transportation Secretary Norman Mineta, Mayor Richard M. Daley of Chicago, the Honorable Tom Daschle and Dr. Antonia Novello. The former Treasury Secretary, Dr. Lawrence Summers, now the President of Harvard University, was honored, along with the President of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Susan Hockfield, and the President of New York University, Dr. John Sexton.

Academy member and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Thomas Friedman discusses the effects of globalization.

Among the constellation of acclaimed scientists at the Summit were eight recipients of the Nobel Prize. Recent Nobel honorees who joined the Academy at the 2005 Summit were Dr. Richard Axel and Dr. Linda Buck (Medicine) Dr. Aaron Ciechanover (Chemistry) and Dr. David Gross and Dr. Frank Wilczek (Physics). The only living American to have received the Nobel Prize for Literature, Toni Morrison, was one of a number of new honorees from the world of letters, including novelists John Irving and Tom Wolfe.

A member of the Class of 2005, Today Show co-anchor, Katie Couric addresses the members and delegates.

Pulitzer Prize recipients in attendance included: playwright Edward Albee biographer A. Scott Berg journalist Thomas L. Friedman composer Wynton Marsalis authors Frank McCourt, N. Scott Momaday and Neil Sheehan and composer-lyricist Stephen Sondheim. The world of music was further represented by Academy members Kathleen Battle, John Fogerty, Naomi and Wynonna Judd, B.B. King and Itzhak Perlman.

MIT President Dr. Susan Hockfield with a fellow member of the Academy, Her Excellency Vaira Vike-Freiberga, President of Latvia, and her husband Imants Freibergs, during the reception at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Leaders of the motion picture industry and the acting profession included Star Wars creator George Lucas and actors Sally Field, Michael J. Fox, James Earl Jones and Denzel Washington. Journalism and the news media were represented by Academy members Katie Couric, Sam Donaldson, Chris Matthews, Tim Russert and Mike Wallace.

Baseball Hall of Famer Yogi Berra is inducted into the Academy by track and field legend Sir Roger Bannister.

The Mayor of New York City, the Honorable Michael R. Bloomberg, was the Host of this year&rsquos Summit Catherine B. Reynolds, Chairman and CEO of The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation, was the Host Chairman. The Summit was made possible by a generous grant from The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation. Honorees and guests of the Academy stayed at the famed St. Regis Hotel, the most charming and elegant of the city&rsquos historic gathering places. Many of the Summit&rsquos symposium sessions, luncheons and dinners were held in the glittering Roof Ballroom of the St. Regis.

Former CIA Director, Academy member George Tenet, and Chris Matthews at the Summit&rsquos opening symposium.

The Summit opened at New York&rsquos Metropolitan Museum of Art with a stirring address by a member of the Academy&rsquos Class of 2002, the 42nd President of the United States, William J. Clinton. The former president addressed the need for global cooperation among the next generation of leaders. Mr. Clinton emphasized the positive aspects of globalization, asserting that the world drawing closer together promises improvements in the quality of life for all. This theme, introduced by President Clinton on the first night, would be underscored on the last day of the Summit by journalist Thomas L. Friedman, who detailed the benefits and challenges of an international information economy in a presentation based on his best-selling book, The World Is Flat. President Clinton also re-affirmed the importance of America&rsquos historic role as an exemplary democracy, and praised the American people&rsquos consistent preference for optimistic leadership in the nation&rsquos highest office. The mutual delight of the former president and the international student delegates in the free exchange of ideas was evident in the spirited question-and-answer session that followed Mr. Clinton&rsquos address.

At Gracie Mansion, &ldquoMeet the Press&rdquo host Tim Russert is inducted into the Academy by Mayor Michael Bloomberg.

The opening evening continued with a disarmingly informal presentation by Katie Couric, the host of NBC&rsquos popular Today Show. Miss Couric spoke amusingly of the pitfalls and rejection she overcame in her rise to the top of her profession. She also spoke more seriously of the personal loss that led her to become the nation&rsquos leading spokeswoman for colon cancer detection and research.

Sally Field and Denzel Washington, 2005 honorees, participate in a discussion during a visit to a Broadway theater.

Two new members of the Academy of Achievement were inducted on the first evening of the Summit: the President of MIT, Dr. Susan Hockfield and baseball legend Yogi Berra, who offered the Academy students one of his often-quoted aphorisms: &ldquoWhen you come to a fork in the road, take it.&rdquo Berra was presented with the Gold Medal of the Academy by track and field legend Sir Roger Bannister. The evening concluded with a sparkling dinner in the awe-inspiring Temple of Dendur, a first-century Egyptian temple reassembled, stone by stone, in a vast sky-lit chamber of the Metropolitan.

Three recipients of the Pulitzer Prize, playwright Tony Kushner and Academy members Stephen Sondheim and Edward Albee, discuss the role of the arts in society with Sally Field, Denzel Washington, and James Earl Jones.

The first morning&rsquos proceedings began in the Roof Ballroom of the St. Regis Hotel, as MSNBC Hardball Host Chris Matthews moderated a thought-provoking discussion between the Academy&rsquos students and former CIA Director George Tenet.

Star Wars creator George Lucas, a member of the Awards Council, takes questions from the student delegates.

A penetrating discussion of the relationship of religion and science was led by Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the National Institute for Human Genome Research. Panelists included famed neurosurgeon Dr. Ben Carson Sir Paul Nurse, President of Rockefeller University and recipient of the Nobel Prize for Medicine and anthropologist Donald Johanson, discoverer of the celebrated &ldquoLucy&rdquo fossils.

Music&rsquos jazz maestro Wynton Marsalis welcomes fellow members and Academy students to Jazz at Lincoln Center.

The morning&rsquos speakers also included the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Angela&rsquos Ashes, Frank McCourt, and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field. A thoughtful discussion of Health and Public Policy was moderated by David Gergen, advisor to four presidents and Director of the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard&rsquos Kennedy School of Government. Academy members on the panel included the Mayor of Chicago, Richard M. Daley former U.S. Senator Tom Daschle Dr. Antonia Novello, the former Surgeon General of the United States and the pioneer of integrative medicine, Dr. Andrew Weil.

Golden Plate Awards Council member Lech Walesa, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, speaks to the delegates.

At midday, Academy members, guests and student delegates enjoyed a luncheon on the lawn at historic Gracie Mansion, the official residence of the Mayor of New York, as guests of the Summit&rsquos Host, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg. After lunch, the assembly enjoyed an entertaining and informative presentation by Meet the Press host Tim Russert, who was inducted into the Academy by Mayor Bloomberg himself.

Academy members: Pulitzer Prize-winning author N. Scott Momaday and Elie Wiesel, Nobel Peace Prize recipient.

Thursday afternoon took the Academy to the Broadway theater district for a once-in-a-lifetime gathering of theatrical luminaries. The Artistic Director of New York&rsquos Public Theater, Oskar Eustis, conducted the discussion between the Academy&rsquos student delegates and a panel including: America&rsquos foremost playwright, Edward Albee Broadway&rsquos most honored composer, Stephen Sondheim Angels in America author Tony Kushner the distinguished actor James Earl Jones and two-time Oscar winners Sally Field and Denzel Washington. Following the panel discussion, Denzel Washington and Stephen Sondheim were both inducted into the Academy.

Itzhak Perlman, 2005 Academy guest of honor and legendary violinist and conductor, at Jazz at Lincoln Center.

On returning to the St. Regis, special guest Dean Kamen, inventor of the Segway upright scooter, demonstrated a revolutionary water-purification system, which may supply clean water to parts of the globe where this is the rarest and most precious of natural resources. The Academy also heard from Nobel Prize-winning physicists David Gross and Frank Wilczek, Egyptologist Kent Weeks and Sir John Bond, Chairman of HSBC Holdings. The afternoon program culminated in a free-wheeling question-and-answer session with Star Wars creator George Lucas.

Shirin Ebadi, Academy honoree and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, receives an ovation at the United Nations.

The Academy enjoyed an exhilarating evening of music, dance and inspiration in the new home of Jazz at Lincoln Center, Frederick P. Rose Hall. The assembly gathered in the Allen Room, whose 50-foot glass wall offered a breathtaking view of Columbus Circle and Central Park as night fell over the city. Brilliant student delegates of the Academy performed throughout the evening, including pianists Alexandre Pirojenko and Adam Golka. The evening began on an unexpectedly whimsical note with a surprise performance by Dr. Francis Collins. Accompanying himself expertly on guitar, Dr. Collins brought down the house with his original lyrics to the standard, &ldquoMy Way,&rdquo presenting a satirical view of academic life that struck a resounding chord with the Academy&rsquos student delegates.

His Excellency Festus Mogae, President of Botswana and 2005 honoree, speaking at United Nations symposium.

The greater part of the evening focused on the theme of Faith and the Human Spirit. The celebrated dancer and choreographer Arthur Mitchell, founder of the Dance Theatre of Harlem, introduced a stunningly talented Academy student delegate, Megan June, who performed a thrilling trio with members of Mitchell&rsquos company.

Academy members: Wendy Kopp, Edward J. Markey, Larry Summers and John Sexton during a panel discussion.

The Artistic Director of Jazz at Lincoln Center, Wynton Marsalis, spoke movingly of the power of music to give voice to the highest yearnings of the human spirit. The trumpet virtuoso proved his point with a powerfully swinging performance, accompanied by a rhythm section drawn from the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra. The internationally acclaimed soprano Kathleen Battle gave a spine-tingling a cappella reading of the traditional spiritual &ldquoSwing Low,&rdquo before joining Marsalis and his combo to explore the common ground of jazz and gospel music with a soul-stirring rendition of &ldquoThis Little Light of Mine.&rdquo

Toni Morrison, a recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature, was inducted into the Academy during the Summit.

The next two speakers were both recipients of the Nobel Prize for Peace. The former President of Poland, Solidarity founder Lech Walesa, spoke passionately of the inspiration the late Pope John Paul II lent to the Polish people in their struggle for freedom. Elie Wiesel, a survivor of the Holocaust, internationally acclaimed author and human rights activist, brought many in the audience to tears with his eloquent testimony, affirming the power of the human spirit to survive and overcome even the most horrific of historic calamities.

Google co-founder Larry Page first attended the Summit as a student he returns once more as a guest of honor.

At the end of his address, Wiesel introduced the world&rsquos greatest violinist, Itzhak Perlman, who was inducted into the Academy to thunderous applause. Perlman spoke briefly before introducing another gifted Academy student delegate, the 17-year-old violin prodigy Nicola Benedetti, who recently signed an unprecedented recording contract with Deutsche Grammophon. Her performance of the &ldquoMeditation&rdquo from Thaïs transported the audience and her fellow performers to a realm beyond words.

U.S. Supreme Court Justice Anthony M. Kennedy, a 2005 honoree, with Awards Council member Ralph Nader.

The Pulitzer Prize-winning novelist and poet N. Scott Momaday spoke of the meaning of faith from his own Native American perspective, and movingly read the opening paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence. As the last of those familiar, ever-new words reverberated in the darkened hall, singer James Ingram led a gospel choir in a rousing performance of &ldquoAmerica the Beautiful,&rdquo bringing the evening to a profoundly stirring conclusion.

2005 guest of honor Tom Wolfe, best-selling author and journalist, addressing the delegates and members at a symposium during the Academy of Achievement&rsquos 44th annual International Achievement Summit in New York.

Friday morning took the Academy to the majestic halls of the United Nations for a unique symposium on the role of the global body in the world today. An authentic hero of our times, Paul Rusesabagina, whose courageous actions were recounted in the film Hotel Rwanda, spoke of the horrific genocide that took place in his native country and stressed the duty of the world community to prevent similar catastrophes in the future, making specific reference to the unfolding tragedy in Darfur, Sudan.

Author John Irving with Dr. Bernard Kouchner, founder of Doctors Without Borders and a Nobel Prize laureate.

The Academy heard from another new member, the founder of Doctors Without Borders and Doctors of the World, Dr. Bernard Kouchner. His address was made all the more poignant by the recent death of Helene De Beir. A student delegate to the Academy&rsquos 1999 International Achievement Summit in Budapest, she later joined Doctors Without Borders in Afghanistan, where she lost her life to a Taliban ambush while providing emergency medical aid to refugees. Dr. Kouchner asked that we honor her by doing our part to build the better world for which she sacrificed her life.

2005 honorees Dr. Richard Axel and Dr. Linda Buck, recipients of the Nobel Prize in Medicine, with two Academy members, Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the Human Genome Project, and financier/philanthropist Michael Milken.

Another courageous soul who shared her experience with the Academy that morning was Dr. Shirin Ebadi. A fearless advocate of the rights of women and children in her native Iran, she has persisted in her cause despite the opposition of her country&rsquos government. Her determination has won the admiration of the world and earned her the Nobel Prize for Peace.

Toni Morrison, recipient of the Nobel Prize, and Edward Albee at a reception prior to the Banquet of the Golden Plate ceremonies during the 2005 International Achievement Summit in New York City. (Academy of Achievement)

The United Nations&rsquo Undersecretary General for Communications and Public Information, Shashi Tharoor, introduced an extraordinary panel on the Future of Sub-Saharan Africa. Participants included: the President of Botswana, His Excellency Festus Mogae the President of Senegal, His Excellency Abdoulaye Wade the UN&rsquos Undersecretary General and Special Advisor for Africa, Ibrahim Gambari and the Director of UNICEF, the Honorable Ann Veneman.

Her Majesty Queen Rania of Jordan, a 2005 guest of honor, receives her award at the Banquet of the Golden Plate.

After their morning at the UN, Academy members, guests and student delegates returned to the St. Regis for a special midday session on the theme of Social Entrepreneurship. The Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation announced a grant of $20 million to fund the Catherine B. Reynolds Foundation Fellows for Social Entrepreneurship at Harvard and New York University. These fellowships will make it possible for over 100 students at each of these universities to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to create financially self-sustaining not-for-profit organizations that will address the most pressing challenges facing America and the world in the 21st century.

Actor/activist Michael J. Fox is inducted into the Academy by Olympic figure-skating champion Dorothy Hamill.

The President of New York University, John Sexton, and the President of Harvard, Lawrence Summers, were on hand to accept these gifts on behalf of their universities. The session&rsquos other speakers included philanthropist Kenneth E. Behring and Wendy Kopp, the founder of Teach for America. Congressman Edward J. Markey, a special guest of the Academy, conducted an intriguing discussion with the Academy&rsquos student delegates, in which they discussed their own social enterprises.

The real-life hero of Hotel Rwanda, Paul Rusesabagina, receives Golden Plate from opera legend Leontyne Price.

On Friday afternoon, the Academy heard from an incomparable array of speakers, including: novelist John Irving Transportation Secretary Norman Y. Mineta national security expert Graham Allison Professor Toni Morrison, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature Google co-founder Larry Page the Attorney General of the United States, Alberto Gonzales United States Supreme Court Justice Anthony Kennedy consumer activist and presidential candidate Ralph Nader the President of Washington&rsquos John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Michael Kaiser and author Tom Wolfe. The Friday afternoon symposium concluded with addresses by two of the world&rsquos most admired men: Archbishop Desmond Tutu, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize and the former Secretary of State, the Honorable Colin L. Powell.

Norman Mineta, U.S. Secretary of Transportation, receives the Golden Plate from Google co-founder Larry Page.

The 2005 International Achievement Summit culminated with the glittering Banquet of the Golden Plate, held in the art-deco splendor of the Starlight Ballroom at the famed Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. The members of the Class of 2005 were presented with the Golden Plate of the Academy of Achievement, and after a gracious address by Mayor Michael Bloomberg, the assembled guests, honorees and delegates relaxed for a sumptuous meal and an evening of classic American music.

Sir John Bond is presented the Academy&rsquos Golden Plate Award by the Mayor of New York City, Michael Bloomberg.

The King of the Blues, Academy member B.B. King, brought his sizzling band to the stage, and delegates from around the world were captivated by the infectious rhythms and irresistible humanity of his music. B.B. King was joined onstage for a final duet with a surprise guest, Academy member Wynonna Judd.

B.B. King, recipient of Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, and country singer Wynonna Judd at the Banquet.

The celebration continued with a roof-raising set by a member of the Academy&rsquos Class of 2005, rock and roll legend John Fogerty. Reaching into a song bag packed with his tunes from the 1960s to the present, Fogerty rocked the house with timeless hits like &ldquoBad Moon Rising,&rdquo &ldquoFortunate Son&rdquo and the baseball anthem &ldquoCenterfield,&rdquo before closing with the irresistible &ldquoProud Mary (Rolling on the River).&rdquo Heads of state, Nobel laureates, distinguished authors, scientists, captains of industry and legends of stage and screen joined the international student delegates on the dance floor, bringing the 2005 Banquet of the Golden Plate to a joyous conclusion.

Songwriters Hall of Fame member John Fogerty receives the Golden Plate from Awards Council member B.B. King.

In a city that only a few years ago was traumatized by a brutal act of hatred, talented students from around the world had a chance to see and hear all that human beings can accomplish when they set aside their differences and pursue their highest ideals. By taking to heart the example of the Academy&rsquos distinguished honorees, the student delegates may learn to fulfill their own potential for leadership and build a better world for all.

A new honoree of the Academy, rock and roll legend John Fogerty, sings at Banquet of the Golden Plate ceremony.


Malala Yousafzai Turns 19 Today And Look at All She Has Done

Malala Yousafzai is hardly your ordinary teenager. She turns nineteen today and already has numerous accomplishments under her belt. These include but not are not limited to winning the Nobel Peace Prize, writing a bestselling memoir, and becoming a renowned education activist around the world.

We’ve compiled some of her greatest and most defining moments. Nothing can hold Malala back, and she’s not stopping any time soon.

2011: Awarded Pakistan’s first Youth National Peace Prize

Nominated by Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Malala won Pakistan’s first Youth National Peace Prize. This award set the stage for the Taliban’s vendetta against her.

2012: Speaking out against the Taliban

Love for education runs in Malala’s family. Her father, who established a private school in Pakistan, taught her to believe in education reform. The Taliban gained control of her region, Swat, in 2008, and shut down all of the schools for girls. She began blogging anonymously for the BBC in 2009 when she was only 11 about what it was like to live under Taliban control.

Although writing under a pseudonym, she couldn’t hide from the Taliban for long. Malala was shot in the head by Taliban gunmen while on her school bus. After a procedure in Pakistan, she was flown to the United Kingdom alone to undergo surgery and was separated from her parents. In an article for TIME describing her stay in the hospital, she writes, “I felt nothing, maybe just a bit satisfied. So they did it. My only regret was that I hadn&rsquot had a chance to speak to them before they shot me. Now they&rsquod never hear what I had to say.”

2013: She publishes her book I Am Malala and leaves Jon Stewart speechless

Malala’s book I Am Malala: The Girl Who Stood Up For Education and Was Shot by the Taliban quickly became a nonfiction bestseller. In an interview on The Daily Show, Jon Stewart called it “humbling to meet” her. Stewart looked genuinely in awe of Malala. The video says it all.

2014: Malala wins the Nobel Peace Prize

Just two years after getting shot by the Taliban, she and Kailash Satyarthi, a children’s rights activist from India, won the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize. She was just 17. They were both commended “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education.&rdquo

2014: Malala named as one of the Most Influential Teens of 2014 and 100 Most Influential People

TIME chose Malala as one of the most influential teens of 2014, and later included her in its 2014 “Time 100” listing. She also started her own foundation in 2013, the Malala Fund, which promotes education for girls.

In her 2014 TIME 100 profile, former Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords wrote about Malala:

Like millions around the world, I draw strength from brave Malala&rsquos example…In the face of oppression and bitter injustice, she demands education and opportunity. In the face of violence from the hands of cowards, she refuses to back down.

Malala is a testament that women everywhere will not be intimidated into silence. We will make our voices heard.

2015: Malala Is the Runner-Up in TIME’s Person of the Year Poll

Leading the charge in front of Pope Francis and Angela Merkel, Malala once again dominated TIME’s poll. In 2015, she also spoke at the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Conference and released her documentary He Named Me Malala&mdashall while a high school junior.


Important Psychology Events: 1950 to 2000

The latter half of the 20th century was centered around the standardization of the diagnostic criteria of mental illness, hallmarked by the release of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) by the American Psychiatric Association. It is the foundational tool still in use today to direct diagnosis and treatment.

  • 1952: The first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is published.
  • 1954: Abraham Maslow publishes "Motivation and Personality," describing his theory of a hierarchy of needs. He is one of the founders of humanistic psychology.
  • 1958: Harry Harlow publishes "The Nature of Love," which describes the importance of attachment and love in rhesus monkeys.
  • 1961: Albert Bandura conducts his now-famous Bobo doll experiment in which child behavior is described as a construct of observation, imitation, and modeling.
  • 1963: Bandura first describes the concept of observational learning to explain aggression.
  • 1974: Stanley Milgram publishes "Obedience to Authority," which describes the findings of his famous obedience experiments.
  • 1980: The DSM-III is published.
  • 1990: Noam Chomsky publishes "On the Nature, Use, and Acquisition of Language."
  • 1991: Steven Pinker publishes an article introducing his theories as to how children acquire language, which he later publishes in the book "The Language Instinct."
  • 1994: The DSM-IV is published.

Watch the video: The History of Black Protest in Sports. The New Yorker