Demoness Lamashtu Amulet

Demoness Lamashtu Amulet


A Neo-Assyrian obsidian lamashtu amulet, circa 8th-7th century B.C.

Rectangular in form, with rounded corners and a perforated flange for suspension, the obverse with an incised image of the demon Lamashtu, striding with an elongated body, her arms raised, a seated dog in profile and a ladder to the right, an arrow and a piglet in profile to the left, a line of cuneiform text below reading: « Incantation » with seven lines of cuneiform text on the the reverse, reading: « Incantation, O Lamashtu, daughter of Anu, thou art great among the gods. Be conjured by the heavens and be conjured by the earth » 1 7/16 in. (3.6 cm.) long. Estimate $4,000 – $6,000

Provenance: Milton Yondorf, Chicago, prior to 1938 thence by descent to John D. Yondorf Jr., Chicago, 1948.

Literature: W. Farber, An Edition of the Canonical Series of Lamashtu Incantations and Rituals and Related Texts from the Second and First Millennia B.C., Winona Lake, Indiana, 2014, p. 338, fig. 22.

Christie’s. ANCIENT JEWELRY, 11 December 2014, New York, Rockefeller Plaza.


The obverse with an incised image of the demon Lamashtu with head of a bird facing right, striding right, with an elongated body, her arms raised in a threatening posture, a seated dog to lower right in profile with comb above a piglet in profile to lower left with spindle above an uncertain &lsquosideways-T&rsquo symbol at top left corner and donkey&rsquos ankle to top right a line of cuneiform text, which translates to &ldquoIncantation.&rdquo The reverse has seven lines of cuneiform text that translates as: &ldquoIncantation, O Lamashtu, daughter of Anu, thou art great among the gods. Be conjured by the heavens and be conjured by the earth.&ldquo

In Mesopotamian mythology, Lamashtu was a female demon, monster, malevolent goddess or demigoddess who menaced women during childbirth and, if possible, kidnapped their children while they were breastfeeding. She would gnaw on their bones and suck their blood, as well as being charged with a number of other evil deeds. Lamashtu is depicted as a mythological hybrid, with a hairy body, a lioness&rsquo head with donkey&rsquos teeth and ears, long fingers and fingernails, and the feet of a bird with sharp talons. She is often shown standing or kneeling on a donkey, nursing a pig and a dog, and holding snakes. She thus bears some functions and resemblance to the Mesopotamian demon Lilith.

Lamashtu&rsquos father was the Sky God Anu. Unlike many other usual demonic figures and depictions in Mesopotamian lore, Lamashtu was said to act in malevolence of her own accord, rather than at the gods&rsquo instructions. Along with this her name was written together with the cuneiform determinative indicating deity. This means she was a goddess or a demigoddess in her own right. She bore seven names and was described as seven witches in incantations. Her evil deeds included: slaying children causing harm to mothers and expectant mothers eating men and drinking their blood disturbing sleep bringing nightmares destroying crops infesting rivers and lakes and being a bringer of disease, sickness, and death.

Pazuzu, a god or demon, was invoked to protect birthing mothers and infants against Lamashtu&rsquos malevolence, usually on amulets, such as this one, and statues. Although Pazuzu was said to be bringer of famine and drought, he was also invoked against evil for protection, and against plague, but he was primarily and popularly invoked against his fierce, malicious rival Lamashtu.


Top 10 Worst Theological or Mythological Demons

Whether you are religious or not, demons have played a large part in mythology, books, movies, and even music. Films, such as &ldquoParanormal Activity&rdquo, &ldquoThe Exorcist&rdquo, &ldquoThe Exorcism of Emily Rose&rdquo, &ldquoFallen&rdquo, and&ndashmore recently&ndash&ldquoThe Last Exorcism&rdquo, have made demons something to fear. Movies, however, rarely scratch the surface of just how evil these former, corrupt servants of God (or many gods) can be. Here, in no particular order, are the 10 worst&ndashand/or weirdest&ndashdemons in theological and mythological history.

Origin: Jewish mythology
Also known as: Abizou, Obizu, Obizuth, Obyzouth, and Byzou

This female demon was believed to be responsible for miscarriages, still-births, and infant mortality. Abyzou is believed to have been infertile, so these heinous acts were/are most likely out of jealousy. She is often depicted having snake- and/or fish-like attributes. [Image Source]

Whether you love mythology or just unique stories in general, you&rsquoll never get tired of Mythology: Timeless Tales of Gods and Heroes at Amazon.com!

Origin: Christian demonology
Also known as: Agreas

This male demon makes &ldquothose who run stand still&rdquo, a terrible thing to be a victim of during, say, a tornado. He is also said to be one of the demons that controls earthquakes. Agares also teaches many languages, focusing on the profanities and ethnic slurs. He is also believed to be the ruler of the eastern zone of Hell, and he is said to have 31 legions of demons at his command. He is also one of the&ndashif not the&ndashstrangest looking demon on this list. He is often portrayed as a pale elderly man riding a crocodile, with a hawk either attached to or on his fist. No joke!

Origin: Zoroastrian mythology
Also known as: Akem Manah, Akoman, Akvan

His name means &ldquomanah made evil&rdquo in this case, the word &ldquomanah&rdquo represents &ldquothe mind&rdquo. Many refer to him as the demon of &ldquoevil intention&rdquo, &ldquoevil mind&rdquo, &ldquoevil purpose&rdquo, or &ldquoevil thinking&rdquo. His job: To prevent people from fulfilling their moral duties (.i.e.: being a good parent, saving a life, etc.).

Origin: Pre-Slovic and Slovic mythology, and Christian demonology
Also known as: plural: Ale

Ale are some of the few demons on this list who does evil deeds, but can be persuaded to do good deeds, and can even help you! They particularly like creating bad weather (most notably, hail- and thunder-storms) over farms, orchards, and vineyards, in order to destroy crops. They also are said to like eating children. Ale are so hungry, that they are said to be able to &ldquoeat the sun and/or moon&rdquo, creating eclipses. They can pose a great threat to a persons&rsquo mental and physical life they can even possess you. However, if you approach an Ala with trust and respect, she and the other Ale will save your life whenever necessary, and make you rich! Ale are also very afraid of eagles&hellipjust in case you don&rsquot want to become friends with one. What they look like changes with each account some say they look like ravens, others like clouds or dark winds many say snakes or female dragons. They are believed to live in lakes, springs, clouds, unreachable mountains, forests, caves, or gigantic trees.

Origin: Sumerian mythology

Asag is one of many demons that causes sickness. &ldquoBut what,&rdquo, you say, &ldquoseparates him from other demons that cause sickness?&rdquo. Well, for one, he had sex with all the mountains in the world, and had a litter of &ldquorock-demon&rdquo offspring that defends him in any battle. He is also believed to be so grotesquely, unbelievably ugly, that his very presence causes fish to be boiled alive in rivers and/or lakes within viewing-distance!

Origin: Christian demonology and Kabbalic mythology

Belphegor is absolutely unbelievable. He got his start in Assyria, many, many years ago. He was first called Baal-Peor, and he was associated with orgies, and other types of lewdness. The Israelites worshiped him, in the form of a phallic (penis-shaped) idol. Later on, in Kabbalic mythology, he was a demon who made people paranoid of each other, and who would seduce them with money and overall wealth. Needless to say, it was hard to summon Baal-Peor, because he required the sacrifice of human excrement! In the 16th Century, he changed his name to Belphegor, and changed his strategy (somewhat). He pretty much threw away the idea of causing mutual mistrust in people, and instead&hellipfocused on inventions. He would &ldquosuggest&rdquo crazy (yet plausible) inventions to people, and then use their greed to his (and their) advantage when they became successful. According to legend, Belphegor was sent to Earth from Hell to either justify of disprove the rumors that marriage can result in happiness. Finding no evidence that happiness is possible in a marriage (now, there&rsquos a surprise), he chose to stay on Earth. He is notable for two bizarre attributes: He is believed to be physically, mentally, and strategically strongest in the month of April, and he either was or is Hell&rsquos/Satan&rsquos ambassador to France. Belphegor also played an role in Milton&rsquos book, &ldquoParadise Lost&rdquo. He is either depicted as a hideous, bearded demon with horns and claws, or a beautiful young woman.

Origin: Japanese Buddhist mythology

Jikininki are the spirits of selfish, greedy, or ungodly people who have passed on. They are said to be cursed to eat the flesh of human corpses. It is also said that they take valuables from the corpses, in order to bribe local law-enforcement officials to leave them alone. Unlike most demons, they actually hate what they are, and are in a constant state of self-disgust and self-loathing. Some accounts state that they are so terrifying to look at, that seeing one would make you paralyzed with fear. Other accounts indicate that Jikininki can take the form of normal human beings, and can even lead seemingly normal lives by day. They are notable in that&ndashunlike other gaki or rakshasa (&ldquohungry ghosts&rdquo), and ghosts in general&ndashthey are an endangered species, if one can use such a term in this context.

Dive into some of the strangest tales ever told! Buy Handbook of Japanese Mythology at Amazon.com!

Origin: Indonesian mythology
Also known as: Kuntilanak, Matianak, or Boentianak

The Pontianak are the spirits of ladies who died during child-birth, and became undead. Pontianak are said to scare people (mostly men), and then rip out their internal organs for feeding with their claws. In the case of men that the Pontianak knew when they were alive (who abused, or otherwise betrayed them), they are said to remove the man&rsquos genitalia with their bare hands (Ouch!!). They are much like vampires however, they do what they do more out of vengeance, rather then necessity or sustenance. It&rsquos also hard to judge just how far away from you they are usually, a loud cry means the Pontianak is far away, whereas a soft cry signifies that the Pontianak is nearby. It is also said that a faint floral fragrance is detected upon first seeing it, however, the fragrance changes to something rotten after a short period of time. Pontianak are believed to live in banana trees, a possible phallic-/fertility-reference.

Origin: Slavic mythology
Also known as: Pscipolnista, Poludnica, Polednice

&ldquoLady Midday&rdquo is certainly a unique female demon. She is said to pose tough questions and make conversation with laborers working in the fields during the hottest part of the day in summertime. Any incorrect answer or unprompted subject change results in a beheading, either with a scythe, or a pair of shears. &ldquoLady&rdquo is also the personification of heat-stroke, and can also give people insanity or heat-sickness, in lieu of decapitation. Her description varies between a 12 year old girl, an old woman, or a generally beautiful woman.

Origin: Sumerian and Mesopotamian mythology
Also known as: Dimme

Lamashtu is a heinous, terrifying, demoness. She is said to menace women throughout and after the end of their pregnancies. She is routinely said to kidnap infants while they&rsquore breastfeeding she would suck their blood, and chew on their bones. Add to that the fact that her other hobbies included: Infesting rivers and lakes, killing crops and other plants, sucking the blood of men, creating sleep-disturbances, spreading diseases and illnesses, and bringing nightmares. And, unlike most demons from Mesopotamian mythology, she didn&rsquot answer to anyone not any god, or man, or any part of any divine hierarchy. So evil was Lamashtu, that pregnant women and their loved ones would routinely summon the demon, Pazuzu, to protect them. For the uninitiated, Pazuzu was the demon made famous by the, &ldquoThe Exorcist&rdquo movies! Allegedly, Pazuzu and Lamashtu were fierce rivals, who would attack each other at any chance. While Pazuzu was known for bringing famines and droughts, soon-to-be-mothers were so afraid of Lamashtu, that they were willing to take the risk! That means that, yes, Linda Blair&rsquos performance in &ldquoThe Exorcist&rdquo was nothing compared to the wrath of Lamashtu! Lamashtu is usually described as a &ldquomythological hybrid&rdquo, with the head of a lioness, the teeth and ears of a donkey, the feet of a bird (complete with sharp talons), as well as a hairy body, and long, sharp fingers and fingernails. She is usually depicted nursing a dog and a pig and holding snakes, while standing or kneeling on a donkey! Subtle, isn&rsquot it?


Lilith - Biblical Archaeology Society

Is there a particular question or comment you have, in order to start the conversation?

I'm curious who lilith is. I've read she is descended from ishtar/enoch motifs and that she was mentioned in enoch as well as in an apocryphal work w her namesake (but not mentioned here, but the story is, of her desire to remain autonomous/dominate adam and was literally demonised for it). I've read shes mentioned in Isaiah and has a lot of feminine archetypal fears back projected onto her throughout societal changes. This article details the Jewish time periods her name was used.

When God created Adam and saw that he was alone, He created a woman from dust, like him, and named her Lilith. But when God brought her to Adam, they immediately began to fight. Adam wanted her to lie beneath him, but Lilith insisted that he lie below her. When Lilith saw that they would never agree, she uttered God’s Name and flew into the air and fled from Adam. Then Adam prayed to his Creator, saying, “Master of the Universe, the woman you gave me has already left me.” So God called upon three angels, Senoy, Sansenoy, and Semangelof, to bring her back. God said, “Go and fetch Lilith. If she agrees to go back, fine. If not, bring her back by force.”

The angels left at once and caught up with Lilith, who was living in a cave by the Red Sea, in the place where Pharaoh’s army would drown. They seized her and said, “Your maker has commanded you to return to your husband at once. If you agree to come with us, fine if not, we’ll drown one hundred of your demonic offspring every day.”

Lilith said, “Go ahead. But don’t you know that I was created to strangle newborn infants, boys before the eighth day and girls before the twentieth? Let’s make a deal. Whenever I see your names on an amulet, I will have no power over that infant.” When the angels saw that was the best they would get from her, they agreed, so long as one hundred of her demon children perished every day.

That is why one hundred of Lilith’s demon offspring perish daily, and that is why the names of the three angels are written on the amulets hung above the beds of newborn children. And when Lilith sees the names of the angels, she remembers her oath, and she leaves those children alone.

The haunting legend of Lilith finds its source in the rabbinic commentary on the biblical passage Male and female He created them (Gen. 1:27). It appeared to the rabbis that this passage contradicted the sequential creation of Adam and Eve (Gen. 2:21-22). Therefore they attempted to resolve this contradiction by saying that Male and female He created them referred to Adam’s first wife, whom they named Lilith, while Eve, who was created later, was Adam’s second wife. They chose the name Lilith from Isaiah 34:14, where Lilith is mentioned (Yea, Lilith shall repose there), in what is believed to be a reference to a Babylonian night demoness.

Even though Lilith seems to leap fully formed out of a line in the Bible, it is likely that the legend was already told among the Jewish people, and that the rabbis sought out a text to attach it to. In any case, the mythological figure of Lilith almost certainly finds its origin in other cultures of the Ancient Near East. Lilith’s role as a seducer of men is likely to have been based on the Babylonian night demon Lilitu, a succubus who seduces men in their sleep, while Lilith’s role as a child slayer may well derive from the Babylonian demon Lamashtu. It is interesting to note that the roles of Lilitu and Lamashtu became blurred together, and Lilith took on the roles of both seducer and child slayer.

Having brought a powerful figure such as Lilith into being, the rabbis felt compelled to recount her entire history. In this case, the legend began to grow quite extensive. The first complete version of it is found in Alpha Beta de-Ben Sira, dating from the ninth century in North Africa, the primary source of the myth.

Here Adam and Lilith are described as having been created at the same time, and having fought over everything from the first. They had a final confrontation over the question of the missionary position. Adam insisted on it Lilith refused, preferring the opposite, with the female dominant. When they couldn’t agree, Lilith pronounced the secret Name of God, the Tetragrammaton, YHVH, which has remarkable supernatural powers, and flew out of the Garden of Eden and landed on the shore of the Red Sea. There Lilith took up residence in a nearby cave and took for lovers all the demons who lived there, while Adam, left alone, complained to God that his woman had left him. God sent the three angels to command Lilith to return. She refused, and they threatened to kill 100 of her demon offspring daily. Lilith still refused to return she was never very maternal.

When Lilith offers a compromise, the myth takes a strange turn. She tells the angels that she was created to strangle children, boys before the eighth day and girls before the twentieth. But if a woman carried an amulet with the words “Out Lilith!” on it, along with the names of the angels, she would leave that woman and her children alone. What is really occurring is that another myth is being fused to the first, while the issue of Lilith’s return to Adam is simply dropped. This second myth concerns Lilith’s role as a child-destroying witch. Indeed, it is possible that a myth concerning another demoness has been incorporated into that of Lilith. In all likelihood, we can identify this demoness as Obyzouth, who is invoked by King Solomon in the first century text The Testament of Solomon. The king commands her to describe herself, and Obyzouth tells how she seeks to strangle children. Furthermore, she reveals that she can be thwarted by the angel Raphael and by women who write her name on an amulet, for then she will flee from them to the other world. What appears to be taking place is that the demoness Lilith, who up to this point had been concerned with issues of independence and sexuality, here takes on a new aspect from Obyzouth, that of the child-destroying witch, by a process of mythic absorption. Why did this happen? Probably because Lilith became such a dominant mythic figure that she absorbed the roles of the lesser known demoness. This likely occurred very early, between the first and third centuries, and Lilith has played a powerful dual role ever since in Jewish folklore and superstition.

So it is that Lilith is regarded both as a witch determined to strangle children and as the incarnation of lust. In her role as a witch, Lilith’s actions provided an explanation for the terrible plague of infant mortality. Use of amulets against Lilith was widespread and is still considered necessary in some ultra-Orthodox Jewish circles. Only a generation ago grandmothers often tied red ribbons on a child’s bed. These ribbons symbolically represented the amulet against Lilith and served the same purpose.

The text of this amulet against Lilith is taken from Sefer Raziel. The amulet against Lilith has been found in archeological digs dating back 1,500 years. The traditional use of such amulets against Lilith was widespread, and visitors to the ultra-Orthodox Mea She’arim section of Jerusalem will even today find protective amulets against Lilith available for purchase. Both the text and even the primitive drawings on the ancient amulet are still in use.

Rabbinic Fantasies: Imaginative Narratives from Classical Hebrew Literature, edited by David Stern and Mark Mirsky.

The Hebrew Goddess by Raphael Patai, pp. 221-254. “Notes on the Testament of Solomon” by H. M. Jackson.


Appearance and Emmisaries [ edit | edit source ]

Pictures of Lamashtu portray her as a jackal-headed woman with a third vertical eye in the center of her forehead, heavily pregnant, with feathered wings, a snake's tail, and taloned feet. She is often depicted carrying her two deadly blades, Redlust and Chillheart. Her head may vary depending on the nature of her worshipers, gnolls preferring the jackal head, medusae a snake's, harpies a hawk's, and so on. [citation needed]

Servants [ edit | edit source ]

Lamashtu and her deranged faithful hold creatures of deformity, monstrosity, and virility in high regard. Thaumaturges and clerics in her service often call shemhazian demons and other Abyssal creatures into their service. Δ]

Bloodmaw This hideous yet powerful and cunning yeth hound has one green eye and one red. He relishes the promise of carnage and a good hunt. Δ] Yaenit These slavering, monstrous hyena-demons resemble corrupted hound archons with gangly limbs and deformed hyena's heads they love maiming and killing in Lamashtu's name. Δ] The Yethazmari Appearing as an enormous jackal, standing 14 foot tall at the shoulder, with smoking eye sockets, black leathery wings and a snake for a tail, the herald of Lamashtu brings terror and bloodshed. In its wake, spawn of horrific and brutal trysts rise up to cause madness anew. Δ]


Foreskin is Not A Birth Defect

If you have never looked into the origins of Jewish circumcision I suggest you try your hand at it.

According to http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sumer_anunnaki/esp_sumer_annunaki15e.htm

Lillith is a debatable “figure” in historical mythology and religion, tracing all the way back to the beginning of human history.

A Hebrew tradition exists in which an amulet is inscribed with the names of three angels (Senoy, Sansenoy, and Semangelof) and placed around the neck of newborn boys in order to protect them from the lilin until their circumcision.”

In modern Luciferianism, Lilith is considered a consort of Lucifer and is identified with the figure of Babalon.

She is said to come from the mud and dust, and is known as the Queen of the Succubi. When she and Lucifer mate, they form an androgynous being called “Baphomet” or the “Goat of Mendes,” also known in Luciferianism as the “God of Witches.”[66]

Writings by Michael W. Ford, including The Foundations of the Luciferian Path, contend that Lilith forms a part of the “Luciferian Trinity” consisting of herself, Samael and Cain. Likewise, Lilith is said to have been Cain’s actual mother, as opposed to Eve.

Lilith here is seen as a goddess of witches, the dark feminine principle, and is also known as the goddess Hecate.[67]”

“In The Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh was said to have driven Lilith, an Anzu bird, and a “snake which fears no spell” from a tree that was in a sacred grove dedicated to the Goddess Ishtar/Inanna/Asherah.[15][16]

Other legends describe the malevolent Anzu birds as “lion-headed” and pictures them as eagle monsters,[17] likewise to this a later amulet from Arslan Tash site features a sphinx like creature with wings devouring a child and has an incantation against Lilith or similar demons,[18] incorporating Lilith’s correlating animals of lions and owls.

Lamashtu (Sumer Dimme) was a very similar Mesopotamian demon to Lilitu and Lilith seems to have inherited many of Lamashtu’s myths.[19] She was considered a demi-goddess and daughter of Anu, the sky god.[20]

Many incantations against her mention her status as a daughter of heaven and exercising her free will over infants. This makes her different from the rest of the demons in Mesopotamia. Unlike her demonic peers, Lamashtu was not instructed by the gods to do her malevolence she did it on her own accord. She was said to seduce men, harm pregnant women, mothers, and neonates, kill foliage, drink blood, and was a cause of disease, sickness, and death.

Some incantations describe her as “seven witches.”[21]
The space between her legs is as a scorpion, corresponding to the astrological sign of Scorpio. (Scorpio rules the genitals & sex organs.) Her head is that of a lion, she has Anzu bird feet like Lilitu, her breasts are suckled by a pig and a dog, and she rides the back of a donkey.[22]”

Sounds like a great lady, let’s all cut up babies now so we can conduct blood sacrifices to appease a mythical demoness who sexes up men in their sleep and terrifies women. That sounds quite Christian / Jewish / Muslim of you!


A Neo-Assyrian obsidian lamashtu amulet, circa 8th-7th century B.C.

Rectangular in form, with rounded corners and a perforated flange for suspension, the obverse with an incised image of the demon Lamashtu, striding with an elongated body, her arms raised, a seated dog in profile and a ladder to the right, an arrow and a piglet in profile to the left, a line of cuneiform text below reading: « Incantation » with seven lines of cuneiform text on the the reverse, reading: « Incantation, O Lamashtu, daughter of Anu, thou art great among the gods. Be conjured by the heavens and be conjured by the earth » 1 7/16 in. (3.6 cm.) long. Estimate $4,000 – $6,000

Provenance: Milton Yondorf, Chicago, prior to 1938 thence by descent to John D. Yondorf Jr., Chicago, 1948.

Literature: W. Farber, An Edition of the Canonical Series of Lamashtu Incantations and Rituals and Related Texts from the Second and First Millennia B.C., Winona Lake, Indiana, 2014, p. 338, fig. 22.

Christie’s. ANCIENT JEWELRY, 11 December 2014, New York, Rockefeller Plaza.


Iconography [ edit | edit source ]

Lamashtu was depicted as having a "head of a lion, the teeth of a donkey, naked breasts, a hairy body, hands stained (with blood?), long fingers and fingernails, and the feet of Anzû." She was widely blamed as the cause of miscarriages and cot deaths (Sudden infant death syndrome). Mesopotamian peoples protected against her using amulets and talismans. Ώ]

Many cultures and religions believe that the soul lives in the blood, and by drinking the blood of anything you take that soul into you. The practice of blood consumption was often motivated by the quest for immortality. In the influential Sumerian myth of Kiskil-lilla, (the later Semitic Lilith demon) she is described as a mother who devours her children in order that she may live forever. The ancient cult practice of consuming the pure blood of infants, allegedly performed by secret societies, ΐ] has notably found its way in modern science through blood transfusion techniques. Α] Β] (See also: Mythopedia, Ambrosia)

The ancient donkey, a type of equid, were reliable transport animals used by the Sumerians (See Sumerian domestication).


Amulet origins

Centre College purchased the unrolled amulet, along with two others, from a collector in 2009 for $5,000. At the time of purchase, the collector said that the amulets were purchased by a family member in Jerusalem in the 1950s, presenting photographs supporting this claim, McCollough said. These photographs are important, as southern Iraq has been looted heavily over the past few decades and McCollough said that many journals will not publish inscriptions from Iraq unless there is proof that they were not recently looted.

At time of publication, the researchers were unable to share the photographs with Live Science or reveal the identity of the collector.

The three amulets are made out of lead and have a copper casing. By analyzing the amount of corrosion on the deciphered amulet, Centre College chemist Jeff Fieberg found it dates to at least A.D. 450 and perhaps earlier, Fieberg said. Used this dating method on another of the amulets purchased from the collector, Fieberg found that it dated to at least A.D. 750.

Because the amulets are so old, they can provide clues as to how the religion of Mandaeanism evolved over time, the researchers said. "The only thing we have from the early period are these magical implements," McCollough said.


Watch the video: Δαίμονας: Θέλω Την Ψυχή Του!